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2016智能制造之九大行业热词

      在政策与产业发展各项利好指标带动下,即将过去的2016年,我国智能制造产业呈现出自动化、集成化、信息化、绿色化的发展趋势,“中国制造2025”、“工匠精神”、“工匠精神”等屡屡成为行业头条热点。

     1.工匠精神

     2016年3月发布的近两万字的两会政府工作报告,其第三部分提到“鼓励企业开展个性化定制、柔性化生产,培育精益求精的工匠精神,增品种、提品质、创品牌”。这是两会报告首次提出“工匠精神”,这意味着把精益生产提到了国家战略的高度,如果说品质生活是人类在工业时代的终极追求之一,那么精益生产则是制造领域的目标,而工业4.0是来成就精益生产的。

“工匠精神”也是互联网、互联网时代非常宝贵的精神,二者有着高度的融合性。“工匠精神”不是守成,不是守旧,不是一味地恪守传统而裹足不前,恰恰相反,而是善于用创新的精神去对产品精雕细琢、反复对此,找到做好的结果,体现出最大的价值,创造出最完美的产品品质,这本身也就是一种创新精神,一种创造精神。

   2.工业4.0

    “工业4.0”是工业现代化发展的新阶段,是在互联网、物联网、大数据、云计算等新一代信息技术应用基础上的工业革命的新阶段,也是未来的一个新常态,代表着一种融合,互联网与工业的深度融合。

按照德国“工业4.0”的划分,工业1.0到4.0的主要特征分别是机械化、电气化、自动化和智能化。而我国制造目前在工业2.0和3.0上有很多需要补课的内容,比如汽车飞机的发动机和芯片、机器人的产业化和关键技术等。

3.互联网+

     据《国务院关于积极推进“互联网+行动的指导意见》中的定义,“互联网+”是把互联网的创新成果与经济社会各领域深度融合,推动技术进步、效率提升和组织变革,提升实体经济创新力和生产力,形成更广泛的以互联网为基础设施和创新要素的经济社会发展新形态。

打造“互联网+”,实质上就是促进工业互联网、云计算、大数据在企业研发设计、生产制造、经营管理、销售服务等全流程和全产业链的综合集成应用。加强智能制造工业控制系统网络安全保障能力建设,健全综合保障体系。

4.中国智造

     2015年5月19日,我国出台了《中国制造2025》规划,明确提出把智能制造作为两化深度融合的主攻方向。2016年,中国经济发展进入新常态,正处于增长速度换挡期、结构调整镇痛期和前期刺激政策消化期三期叠加的状态。加快发展智能制造,是新常态下打造新的国际竞争优势的必然选择,是促进工业向中高端迈进、建设制造强国的重要举措,是重塑中国制造竞争优势的重要工具和手段。

在2016年接近尾声之时,我国的智造产业也取得了一批重大成果,比如载人航天、探月工程、载人深潜、北斗卫星导航系统、超级计算机、高速铁路、大飞机等领域,取得了一批世界顶尖水平的重大成果。但这些成就高度依托于国家重大专项和国防工业建设,总体来说,我国智能制造产业建设依旧处于“大而不强”的状态。

5.智能升级

     如果说第一次工业革命是蒸汽革命,那么时至今日的所谓“第四次工业革命”就是智能革命,至此,工业将进入自动化智能化生产阶段。在中国,在实现这个阶段还有待时日,但在2015年发布的相关政策中,智能化已经写入文件,成为制造业转型升级的必然方向。制造智能化涉及的产品包括高档数控机床、工业机器人、增材制造装备等智能制造装备以及智能化生产线,突破新型传感器、智能测量仪表、工业控制系统、伺服电机及驱动器和减速器等智能核心装置。覆盖行业包括机械、航空、船舶、汽车、轻工、纺织、食品、电子等。另外,文件还指出要统筹布局和推动智能交通工具、智能工程机械、服务机器人、智能家电、智能照明电器、可穿戴设备等产品研发和产业化。

 6.机器换人

     2015年,在北京举行的“2015世界机器人大会”上习近平主席指出:以机器人科技为代表的智能产业蓬勃兴起,成为现代科技创新的一个重要标志。中国将机器人和智能制造纳入了国家科技创新的优先重点领域。我国高危行业意指存在较大风险,危险系数较高的行业,在国家大力倡导扶持工业机器人发展的大环境下,发展“机器换人”可以从本质上提高企业的安全生产水平,使我国的安全生产健康发展。

根据工信部此前发布的工业机器人发展目标,到2020年,中国将形成较为完善的工业机器人产业体系,培育3-5家具有国际竞争力的龙头企业和8-10个配套产业集群;高端产品市场占有率提高到45%以上。


7.人工智能

     “中国制造2025”、“互联网+”等行动对人工智能技术提出了重大需求,发展智能产业和智慧经济需要人工智能技术的持续创新。2016年,人工智能一直都深受大众关注,尤其是在谷歌用AlphaGo打败韩国棋手李世石以后,世界范围内都因为这一场“炫技广告”受到震撼。人工智能概念从1956年提出,至今历经了近60年的演进,已从单一功能设备向通用设备、单一场景到复杂场景、简单行为到复杂行为的逐渐发展。现阶段人工智能产品仍仅仅是辅助人类工作的工具,多表现为传统设备的升级版本,如智能/无人驾驶汽车、扫地机器人、医疗机器人等。未来随着科技等技术的发展,或将会出现在各类环境中模拟人类思维模式去执行各类任务的真正意义的智能机器人。

8.一带一路

     “一带一路”建设作为新时期中国经济外交和对外开放的顶层设计,成为中国促进全球发展合作的“中国方案”,是全方位推进中国对外开放的总抓手。该倡议提出3年来,由点及面,稳步推进,已取得一系列重要早期收获。、

100多个国家和国际组织积极参与其中,30多个国家同中国签署了合作协议,一批重要基础设施和互联互通项目得到落实。中国更是与沿线国家和地区建立了双边经贸联委会、文委会机制,与沿线国家的沟通取得了一系列成果。

9.中国制造2025

     2015年国务院以及工信部发布了多个文件,对中国制造业进行了有力的规范和引导。尤其是《中国制造2025》文件的公布,对中国制造业的深化改革形成了纲领性指导意见,它标志着提升制造业水平成为未来十年的国策,而智能制造有望成为未来十年中国资本市场的核心主题之一。

2016年,这一政策的影响力与日俱增,引起了国内外的广泛关注,得到了各地的高度重视。为推动《中国制造2025》的落地实施,今年工业和信息化部会同相关部门编制了1+X规划指南,启动了一批重大工程和项目,创建了一批试点示范城市,制定了分省市指南。